Malpot Aien or Land Revenue (land administration and revenue) Act, 2034
This is the main Act to carry out land administration including maintenance and updating records, collection of land revenue and settlement of the disputes after completion of survey and handing over of the records to Land Revenue Office by the Survey Parties. This Act is not so comprehensive as compared to others as this does not cover all substantial and procedural matters related to land administration and settlement of disputes. In most of the cases, other Acts are to be referred to settle the cases. This Act covers corrections of survey records, updating the records when transfer of ownership is held and collection of land revenue. It also authorizes the Land revenue Offices to correct the mistakes of Survey and register Chhut Darta. To prescribe the procedures and facilitate the land regulation, a comprehensive Act is deemed necessary to settle each and every disputes so that LIS can function smoothly.
Land (Survey and Measurement) Act, 2019
This Act was enacted to carry out cadastral survey in the country. This Act has been amended from time to time to incorporate provision for other type of surveys like topographical survey, geodetic survey, leveling survey etc.
The purpose of survey is to provide necessary information regarding land as required by the government agencies and the public. The Act has also made provision for re-survey for updating the records and make corrections of errors of previous survey, if any. The records prepared by Department of Survey under this Act are the base for administration of land and collection of revenue. The Act states that the land records prepared by the survey are authentic and once the records are handed over to the Land Revenue Offices, the previous records should be automatically replaces by the new ones and subsequent land administration should be based on the new records. Land (survey) Regulation 2032 and Survey Manual prescribes the procedures of implementation of the Act.
The major issue in the Act is the provision of re-survey. This provision does not clearly states that the Land Revenue Office should compulsorily accept the new records generated through re survey.
Birta (revenue free land) Unmulan (abolition) Act, 2016
Birta land was abolished in 2016 B.S. through enactment of this law. However, the specified time limit set by the law to convert the Birta land into Raikar (ordinary) land has been extended several times and it seems that it is not going to last. The remaining few cases should be settled immediately and the law should be set null and void.
Mulki Ain 2020
This is a common law. This law prevails where there is no specific law in any specific subject. Before enactment of subject specific Acts, land administration used to be governed by Chapters of Muluki Ain mentioned above. After enactment of Land Revenue Act, 2034 B.S. many of the provision made in this law have been ineffective. The courts, however, still refer the law codes relating to land to settle the disputes. Many of the provision made in the Chapters, as mentioned above, of this law codes have been out dated and create confusion as being contradictory to other specific laws.
Land (related to ownership and tenancy) Act 2021
This Act was enacted to implement the Land Reform program of the government. As this Act guides the land reform program of the country, this should be thoroughly reviewed and revised to suit the changed context of the program.
Land Administration Act, 2024
This Act was enacted to meet the purpose of establishing Land Administration Offices to administer, update and maintain the records after completion of survey in the districts. However this responsibility was taken over by Land Revenue Offices through enactment of Land Revenue Act in 2034, this Act has not been abolished.
Guthi Sansthan Act, 2033
This Act authorizes Guthi Sansthan to administer and maintain records of Guthi Land. Besides, it allows Guthi Sansthan to register the land as guthi under section 39 of this Act. However, Guthi Sansthan needs to exercise its authority under this Act in close coordination with Land Revenue and Land Reform Offices.
Forest Act 2049
Forest Land is governed by Forest Act 2049. The Forest administers the forest land in accordance with Chapter 4 of Forest Act. The Forest Offices maintain the record of forest according to their own rules and regulations. Forest Regulation 2051 has been made to prescribe the procedures for its implementation.